There's no cure for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but treatment is available to help relieve the symptoms.
Treatment can also help delay or prevent the process of the spine joining up (fusing) and stiffening.
These treatments can also help if you have non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.
In most cases treatment involves a combination of:
Keeping active can improve your posture and range of spinal movement, along with preventing your spine becoming stiff and painful.
As well as keeping active, physiotherapy is a key part of treating AS. A physiotherapist can advise about the most effective exercises and draw up an exercise programme that suits you.
Types of physiotherapy recommended for AS include:
- a group exercise programme – where you exercise with others
- an individual exercise programme – you are given exercises to do by yourself
- hydrotherapy – exercise in water, usually a warm, shallow swimming pool or a special hydrotherapy bath; the buoyancy of the water helps make movement easier by supporting you, and the warmth can relax your muscles
Some people prefer to swim or play sport to keep flexible. This is usually fine, although some daily stretching and exercise is also important.
If you're ever in doubt, speak to your physiotherapist or rheumatologist before taking up a new form of sport or exercise.
The National Ankylosing Spondylitis Society (NASS) has detailed information about different types of exercise to help you manage your condition.
You may need painkillers to manage your condition while you're being referred to a rheumatologist. The rheumatologist may continue prescribing painkillers, although not everyone needs them all the time.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
The first type of painkiller usually prescribed is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). As well as helping ease pain, NSAIDs can help relieve swelling (inflammation) in your joints.
Examples of NSAIDs include:
When prescribing NSAIDs, your GP or rheumatologist will try to find the 1 that suits you and the lowest possible dose that relieves your symptoms. Your dose will be monitored and reviewed as necessary.
If NSAIDs are unsuitable for you or if you need extra pain relief, an alternative painkiller, such as paracetamol, may be recommended.
Paracetamol rarely causes side effects and can be used in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. However, paracetamol may not be suitable for people with liver problems or those dependent on alcohol.
If necessary, you may also be prescribed a stronger type of painkiller called codeine.
Codeine can cause side effects, including:
- feeling sick
- being sick
If your symptoms cannot be controlled using NSAIDs and exercising and stretching, anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) medicine may be recommended. TNF is a chemical produced by cells when tissue is inflamed.
Anti-TNF medicines are given by injection and work by preventing the effects of TNF, as well as reducing the inflammation in your joints caused by ankylosing spondylitis.
If your rheumatologist recommends using anti-TNF medicine, the decision about whether they're right for you must be discussed carefully, and your progress will be closely monitored.
In rare cases anti-TNF medicine can interfere with the immune system, increasing your risk of developing potentially serious infections.
If your symptoms do not improve significantly after taking anti-TNF medicine for at least 3 months the treatment will be stopped. You may be offered a different anti-TNF medicine.
Monoclonal antibody treatment
Monoclonal antibodies, such as secukinumab and ixekizumab, may be offered to people with AS who do not respond to NSAIDs or anti-TNF medicine, or as an alternative to anti-TNF medicine.
This type of treatment works by blocking the effects of a protein involved in triggering inflammation.
JAK inhibitors such as upadacitinib are a new type of medicine that may be offered to people with AS who do not respond to anti-TNF medicine or cannot take it.
They work by blocking enzymes (proteins) that the immune system uses to trigger inflammation. They're taken as tablets.
Corticosteroids have a powerful anti-inflammatory effect and can be taken as injections by people with AS.
If a particular joint is inflamed, corticosteroids can be injected directly into the joint. You'll need to rest the joint for up to 48 hours after the injection.
It's usually recommended to limit corticosteroid injections to no more than 3 times in one year, with at least 3 months between injections in the same joint.
This is because corticosteroid injections can cause a number of side effects, such as:
- infection in response to the injection
- the skin around the injection may change colour (depigmentation)
- the surrounding tissue may waste away
- a tendon near the joint may burst (rupture)
Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are an alternative type of medicine often used to treat other types of arthritis.
DMARDs may be prescribed for AS, although they're only beneficial in treating pain and inflammation in joints in areas of the body other than the spine.
Sulfasalazine and methotrexate are the main DMARDs sometimes used to treat inflammation of joints other than the spine.
Most people with AS will not need surgery. However, joint replacement surgery may be recommended to improve pain and movement in the affected joint if the joint has become severely damaged.
For example, if the hip joints are affected, a hip replacement may be carried out.
In rare cases corrective surgery may be needed if the spine becomes badly bent.
As the symptoms of AS develop slowly and tend to come and go, you'll need to see your rheumatologist for regular check-ups.
They'll make sure your treatment is working properly and may carry out physical assessments to assess how your condition is progressing. This may involve further sets of the same blood tests or X-rays you had at the time of your diagnosis.